OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to document the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and impact of orofacial pain by anatomical location. In addition, differential effects of SES on orofacial pain across levels of sex, race, and age were documented. METHODS: The subjects were 724 participants in the Florida Dental Care Study, a study of oral health among dentate adults, aged 45 years and older at baseline. Pain prevalence and subjective ratings were assessed for a range of orofacial pain sites using a standardized telephone interview. RESULTS: Lower SES was associated with reporting pain and pain impact at many, but not all, of the orofacial sites. Some sex, race, and age cohort differences in orofacial pain were found when adjusting for differences in socioeconomic position. The most consistent result, as evidenced by similar findings across orofacial pain sites, was that the effects of SES on orofacial pain appear to have a sex-differentiated effect. CONCLUSION: Consistent with findings for other subjective measures of oral health, persons of lower SES are at increased risk for orofacial pain and pain-related behavioral impact.