Rationale: Neointimal hyperplasia is characterized by excessive accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to occlusive disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stenosis. Blood vessel injury increases growth factor secretion and matrix synthesis, which promotes SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia via FAK (focal adhesion kinase). Objective: To understand the mechanism of FAK action in SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia. Methods and Results: Using combined pharmacological FAK catalytic inhibition (VS-4718) and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead (Myh11-Cre-ERT2) mouse models, we report that FAK regulates SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in part by governing GATA4- (GATA-binding protein 4) cyclin D1 signaling. Inhibition of FAK catalytic activity facilitates FAK nuclear localization, which is required for proteasome-mediated GATA4 degradation in the cytoplasm. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified GATA4 binding to the mouse cyclin D1 promoter, and loss of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription diminished SMC proliferation. Stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor or serum activated FAK and redistributed FAK from the nucleus to cytoplasm, leading to concomitant increase in GATA4 protein and cyclin D1 expression. In a femoral artery wire injury model, increased neointimal hyperplasia was observed in parallel with elevated FAK activity, GATA4 and cyclin D1 expression following injury in control mice, but not in VS-4718-treated and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead mice. Finally, lentiviral shGATA4 knockdown in the wire injury significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, SMC proliferation, and neointimal hyperplasia compared with control mice. Conclusions: Nuclear enrichment of FAK by inhibition of FAK catalytic activity during vessel injury blocks SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia through regulation of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription.