Patient satisfaction reflects the patients' perception of the outcome of care and is being considered for use in future reimbursement schemes. No consensus exists regarding the best instrument to measure patient satisfaction in the field of spine surgery. This systematic review aimed to determine how patient satisfaction for spine surgery has been measured previously and whether a disease-specific, comprehensive instrument to measure patient satisfaction has been established; we also aimed to define the dimensions of care that determine patient satisfaction in spine surgery. A systematic search of three online databases, unpublished sources, and citations was undertaken to identify 156 empirical studies that reported on patient satisfaction in the field of spine surgery. Manuscripts were reviewed in terms of the patient satisfaction instrument used, and the instruments were categorized as per content and method axes. Taxonomy of patient satisfaction with spine surgery identified the major characteristics of providers and medical care that influenced patient satisfaction and acted as a structure to categorically define the dimensions of patient satisfaction in spine surgery. The reviewed studies predominantly used global (108/156) rather than multidimensional (46/156), instruments. Most studies (96.2%) reported satisfaction with outcome rather than with care, and only 18.5% of the studies (29/156) utilized a disease-specific instrument. The following seven dimensions of patient status, outcome, and care experience that affected patient satisfaction were identified: pain, function, patient expectations/preference, specific patient health characteristics, caregiver interpersonal manner, efficacy/clinical outcomes, and postoperative care/therapy. Currently, no disease-specific instrument that includes all dimensions of patient satisfaction in spine surgery has been developed. Such a patient satisfaction instrument should be designed, tested for reliability and validity, and widely implemented.