Background: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has anabolic effects in bone, which has led to the clinical use of N-terminal fragments of PTHrP and PTH. Since 10% to 20% of fractures demonstrate healing complications and osteoporosis continues to be a debilitating disease, the development of boneforming agents is of utmost importance. Due to evidence that regions of PTHrP other than the N-terminus may have bone-forming effects, this study was designed to compare the effects of full-length PTHrP 1-141 to N-terminal PTHrP 1-86 on in vitro bone formation. Materials and Methods: MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated once every 6 d for 36 d with 5, 25, and 50 pM of PTHrP 1-141 or 1-86 for 1 or 24 h. Cells were also treated after blocking the N-terminus, the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and the C-terminus of PTHrP, individually and in combination. Area of mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Results: PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased mineralization after 24-h treatments, but not 1-h. PTHrP 1-141 was more potent than 1-86. Treatment with PTHrP 1-141 for 24-h, but not 1-86, resulted in a concentrationdependent increase in ALP, with no effect after 1-h. Exposure to both peptides for 1-or 24-h induced a concentration-dependent increase in OCN, with 24-h exceeding 1-h. Antibody blocking revealed that the NLS and C-terminus are anabolic. Conclusions: Both PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased in vitro bone formation; however, PTHrP 1-141 was more effective. The NLS and C-terminus have anabolic effects distinct from the N-terminus. This demonstrates the advantage of PTHrP 1-141 as a skeletal anabolic agent. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.