Background: We sought to determine if complete pathologic response (cPR) and cytoreductive status at interval debulking surgery (IDS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) are associated with improved clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. Methods: We evaluated 91 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who underwent NACT and IDS. Pathologic response, cytoreductive status, and outcomes were determined. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were calculated. Results: cPR occurred in 9 (10%), microscopic pathologic response (microPR) in 18 (20%), and macroscopic pathologic response (macroPR) in 64 (70%) patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with cPR was significantly improved compared with patients with any pathologic residual disease (microPR/macroPR; undefined vs 10.9 months, P =.01); whereas, microPR was not associated with significantly improved PFS compared with macroPR (16.3 months vs 10 months, P =.08). Cytoreduction to no gross residual disease was associated with improved PFS (undefined vs 7.5 months vs 5.5 months, P <.01) and overall survival (undefined vs 38.7 months vs 12 months, P <.01) compared with visible residual disease less than or equal to 1 cm or suboptimal. Conclusions: cPR is uncommon (10%) after NACT for advanced ovarian cancer. Better pathologic response and cytoreductive status are associated with improved PFS, emphasizing the importance of both chemotherapy response and surgical effort.