The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population has been increasing sharply. Currently, much is feared but little is known about postoperative complications of oral surgery among persons with diabetes. Existing dentaI education and practice guidelines cite excess infectious risk among patients with diabetes; however, empiric evidence to support such concerns is lacking. In fact, dentists commonly prescribe antibiotics when dental surgical procedures involve bone. This practice may contribute to the rising problem of microbial resistance and may increase overall healthcare costs. The growing number of dental patients with diabetes warrants strengthening the evidence base to guide their dental care and prevent possible morbid complications. © 2008 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.