The chemokine receptors CXCR1/2 and CCR2/5 play a critical role in neutrophil and monocyte recruitment to sites of injury and/or inflammation. Neutrophil-mediated inflammation and endothelial cell (EC) injury are unifying factors in the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study tested the hypothesis that systemic administration of rat-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived ECs (iPS-ECs) overexpressing CXCR1/2 or CCR2/5 attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Rat iPS-ECs were transduced with adenovirus containing cDNA of CXCR1/2 or CCR2/5. Ovariecto-mized Sprague-Dawley rats (10 wk old) received intraperitoneal injection of LPS and intravenous infusion of 1) saline vehicle, 2) AdNull-iPS-ECs (iPS-ECs transduced with empty adenoviral vector), 3) CXCR1/2-iPS-ECs (iPS-ECs overexpressing CXCR1/2), or 4) CCR2/5-iPS-ECs (iPS-ECs overexpressing CCR2/5) at 2 h post-LPS. Rats receiving intraperitoneal injection of saline served as sham controls. Later (4 h), proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA and protein levels were measured in total lung homogenates by real-time RT-PCR and Luminex multiplex assays, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in alveoli was measured by immunohistochemical staining. Pulmonary microvascular permeability was assessed by the Evans blue technique, and pulmonary edema was estimated by wet-to-dry lung weight ratios. Albumin levels and neutrophil counts were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 24 h post-LPS. Both CXCR1/2-iPS-ECs and CCR2/5-iPS-ECs significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator expression, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, pulmonary edema, and vascular permeability compared with controls. These provocative findings provide strong evidence that targeted delivery of iPS-ECs overexpressing CXCR1/2 or CCR2/5 prevents LPS-induced acute lung injury.