Objective: We conducted a retrospective, case–control study of neurocysticercosis patients to ascertain early markers that identify subjects likely to develop treatment-resistant seizures. Methods: Clinical histories and imaging studies from 38 neurocysticercosis patients who had been followed for 18 months after treatment were evaluated. Both pairwise and multifactorial analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with continued seizures. Results: Eleven of 38 patients continued to have seizures during the follow-up period. On univariate analysis, the number of neurocysticercosis lesions, number of bands on the baseline neurocysticercosis western blot, edema volumes on follow-up MRI scans, edema volume changes between baseline and follow-up images, and proportion of calcified lesions with perilesional edema were all significantly increased in subjects who had persistent seizures during the 18-month follow-up period. On multivariate analyses using recursive partition and random forest algorithms, variables associated with persistent seizures included: the number of total and calcified lesions, presence of perilesional edema, the rate of change in the lesion and edema volumes from baseline to follow-up, and the number of bands on the neurocysticercosis western blot. Interpretation: Measures of both inflammation and disease burden are key risk factors for persistent seizures despite anticonvulsant treatments in patients with neurocysticercosis. Inflammation is therefore a potentially modifiable risk factor for the frequently seen severe seizure disorders in patients with neurocysticercosis.