Smile dimensions in adult African American and Caucasian females and males

Academic Article


  • © 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objectives: To test smile dimension variations in adult African American and Caucasian females and males. Setting and Sample Population: The University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Dentistry and Hospital. Three hundred and ninety-four participants were recruited; African American females and males distributed over five age groups: 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60 and older than 60. Material & Methods: Three-dimensional surface imaging was used to acquire two images of each participant, one at rest and one upon smile. Landmarks were plotted on the lips and linear distances measured to assess the length of the upper and lower lips, mouth width at rest and upon smile, gingival and dental display upon smile. Results: Linear dimensions are larger in males than in females, and in African Americans than in Caucasians, except for the length of the upper lip that does not differ between male African American and Caucasian males, in any given age group. Gingival display and dental display decrease with age in all groups. Conclusion: Norms should reflect race, age and sex in order to optimize treatment goals.
  • Authors

    Author List

  • Souccar NM; Bowen DW; Syed Z; Swain TA; Kau CH; Sarver DM
  • Start Page

  • 186
  • End Page

  • 191
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • S1