The islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin is a pancreatic hormone and crucially involved in the pathogenesis of type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregation and amyloid formation of IAPP is considered as the primary culprit for pancreatic β-cell loss in T2DM patients. In this study, first X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements on IAPP at lipid interfaces have been carried out, providing a molecular level characterization of the first steps of the lipid-induced fibrillation process of IAPP, which is initiated by lipid-induced nucleation, oligomerization, followed by detachment of larger IAPP aggregate structures from the lipid membrane, and terminated by the formation of mature fibrils in the bulk solution. The adsorption process of IAPP at lipid interfaces in the absence and presence of negatively charged lipid has also been studied by complementary ATR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements. The morphological properties were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, we show that the polyphenolic red wine compound resveratrol is able to inhibit IAPP aggregation also in the presence of aggregation-fostering negatively charged lipid interfaces, revealing its potential as a drug candidate for T2DM. © 2009 American Chemical Society.