© 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation Background: Dietary patterns and associations with incident heart failure (HF) are not well established in the United States. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine associations of 5 dietary patterns with incident HF hospitalizations among U.S. adults. Methods: The REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) trial is a prospective cohort of black and white adults followed from 2003 to 2007 through 2014. Inclusion criteria included completion of a food frequency questionnaire and no baseline coronary heart disease or HF. Five dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets, Southern, and alcohol/salads) were derived from principal component analysis. The primary endpoint was incident HF hospitalization. Results: This study included 16,068 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 9.1 years, 58.7% women, 33.6% black participants, 34.0% residents of the stroke belt). After a median of 8.7 years of follow-up, 363 participants had incident HF hospitalizations. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of adherence to the plant-based dietary pattern was associated with a 41% lower risk of HF in multivariable-adjusted models (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.86; p = 0.004). Highest adherence to the Southern dietary pattern was associated with a 72% higher risk of HF after adjusting for age, sex, and race and for other potential confounders (education, income, region of residence, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, and sodium intake; hazard ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 2.46; p = 0.005). However, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after further adjusting for body mass index in kg/m 2 , waist circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease. No statistically significant associations were observed with incident HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction hospitalizations and the dietary patterns. No associations were observed with the other 3 dietary patterns. Conclusions: Adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with incident HF risk, whereas the Southern dietary pattern was positively associated with incident HF risk.