The long-term effect of rituximab and splenectomy on de novo HLA antibody production and chronic antibody-mediated rejection after renal transplantation is uncertain. In order to gain insight on this, we studied 92 ABO-incompatible and 228 ABO-identical/compatible consecutive renal transplant patients and determined their de novo HLA antibody production and graft outcome. Patients with pretransplant donor-specific antibodies had been excluded. ABO-incompatible transplants included 30 recipients treated with rituximab, 51 by splenectomy, or 11 with neither, due to low anti-A or -B antibody titer. Graft survival in ABO-identical/compatible patients (97.7% at 5 years) was significantly higher than in ABO-incompatible (87.0% at 5 years), rituximab (96.7% at 3 years), or splenectomy (85.7% at 5 years) patients. Only four patients had clinical chronic antibody-mediated rejection (two each identical/compatible and incompatible). There was no significant difference in prevalence of de novo HLA antibody, including donor-specific and nondonor-specific antibodies among ABO-identical/compatible patients (13.9%), patients receiving rituximab (14.3%) or splenectomy (13.2%), or among those receiving cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, mizoribine, and everolimus. Renal function remained stable in most recipients with de novo HLA antibody. Thus, neither pretransplant splenectomy nor rituximab treatment has an inhibitory effect on de novo HLA antibody production during medium-term follow-up. Further study on long-term effects is needed. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.