© 2015, Japanese Society of Nephrology. Background: Some studies have reported causal associations between bacteremia and mortality or allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). However, few studies have assessed the clinical course of kidney function and the risk of acute allograft rejection after bacteremia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 902 kidney transplants performed at Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital between January 1, 2002 and March 31, 2014. Forty-five living donor kidney transplant recipients with single bacteremia were included. We analyzed death, change in kidney function, and development of acute allograft rejection 12 months after bacteremia according to the following groups: primary source of bacteremia (urinary tract or other sources), site of acquisition (community acquired or nosocomial), severity (not meeting the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and sepsis or severe sepsis and septic shock), empiric antibiotic use (appropriate or inappropriate), and baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤44.7 or ≥44.8 ml/min). Results: Urinary tract infection (UTI) was the leading cause of bacteremia (68.9 %), and Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen. Three cases (6.7 %) died of infection that caused bacteremia within 12 months. Pneumonia accounted for two-thirds. Kidney function declined 1 week after bacteremia (P < 0.05), particularly in severe cases. Thereafter, kidney function was comparable to baseline level in each group (P ≥ 0.05). Severe UTI was associated with subsequent acute allograft rejection (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Pneumonia in KTR should be managed with caution. Kidney function generally returned to baseline level after bacteremia. However, severe UTI may be associated with subsequent acute allograft rejection.