© Başkent University 2017 Printed in Turkey. All Rights Reserved. Objectives: Atherosclerosis is becoming a more common problem for dialysis patients. Therefore, transplant surgeons are faced with the need to develop surgical techniques and procedures for severe atherosclerosis. This study aimed to clarify the clinical features, the usefulness of examinations, and operative procedures for kidney transplant recipients with the complication of severe atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Among 220 kidney transplant candidates, 13 patients (severe atherosclerosis group) were predicted complications due to arterial calcification in the bilateral iliac arterial system using a computed tomographic scan. They were compared with the remaining 207 patients (mild atherosclerosis group) based on patient characteristics. The severe atherosclerosis group was evaluated by additional examination, anastomosis procedure of the graft artery, and patient outcome. Results: The severe atherosclerosis group had significantly higher rates of mean recipient age, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, past smoking, and administration of antithrombotics. Past vascular surgery related to atherosclerosis in the aortoiliac region had been performed in 8 patients from the severe atherosclerosis group. A three-dimensional computed tomography angiography and an intraoperative periarterial echography were useful to determine the kidney transplant site. A balloon catheter effectively blocked blood flow. A polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft was used for bypass between the graft artery and abdominal aorta. All kidney grafts of the severe atherosclerosis group were functioning well. Conclusions: Kidney transplant for patients with severe atherosclerosis can be achieved successfully by additional examinations and vascular surgical techniques.