Objectives: To examine the current approaches to cervical screening and points to consider for improving HPV vaccination acceptance and uptake in the US. Methods: An expert forum was conducted September 12-13, 2008, by the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists including 56 experts in cervical cancer and titled "Future Strategies of Cervical Cancer Prevention: What Do We Need to Do Now to Prepare?". Results: Cervical cancer prevention has primarily relied on screening paradigms but vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the cause of the disease, is a primary preventative measure that has been recommended by all cervical cancer screening stakeholders. Guidelines for vaccination are developed by national advisory groups, but successful implementation requires a supportive infrastructure and the cooperation of providers, clinicians, and patients. HPV vaccination has been available in the United States (US) since 2006 and screening practices have been updated to also include HPV genotyping. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to the guidelines for HPV testing (and HPV co-testing) as part of cervical cancer screening, and vaccination coverage has been poor among females aged 11 and 12, the group for which vaccination is recommended by all organizations. Conclusions: The data reviewed and presented in this session of the "Future Strategies of Cervical Cancer Prevention. What Do We Need to do Now to Prepare?". The Forum suggests that the policies influencing HPV vaccination and screening need to be reassessed at multiple levels in order to achieve more effective implementation and regular use. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.