Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) often have difficulties associated with semantic knowledge. Therefore, conceptual apraxia, a defect of action semantics and mechanical knowledge, may be an early sign of this disease. The Florida Action Recall Test (FLART), developed to assess conceptual apraxia, consists of 45 line drawings of objects or scenes. The subject must imagine the proper tool to apply to each pictured object or scene and then pantomime its use. Twelve participants with Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and 21 age- and education-matched controls were tested. Nine Alzheimer's disease participants scored below a 2-standard-deviation cutoff on conceptual accuracy, and the three who scored above the cutoff were beyond a 2-standard-deviation cutoff on completion time. The FLART appears to be a sensitive measure of conceptual apraxia in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.