Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common dementing illness in the elderly, but there is equivocal evidence regarding the frequency of other disorders such as Lewy body disease (LBD), vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). This ambiguity may be related to factors such as the age and gender of subjects with dementia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to calculate the relative frequencies of AD, LBD, VaD, FTD, and HS among 382 subjects with dementia from the State of Florida Brain Bank and to study the effect of age and gender on these frequencies. AD was the most frequent pathologic finding (77%), followed by LBD (26%), VaD (18%), HS (13%), and FTD (5%). Mixed pathology was common: Concomitant AD was present in 66% of LBD patients, 77% of VaD patients, and 66% of HS patients. The relative frequency of VaD increased with age, whereas the relative frequencies of FTD and LBD declined with age. Males were overrepresented among those with LBD, whereas females were overrepresented among AD subjects with onset age over 70 years. These estimates of the a priori probabilities of dementing disorders have implications for clinicians and researchers.