Handedness may be defined as preference or hand-differences in task performance. The strength and significance of the relationship between hand preference and hand performance asymmetries have been contested. To evaluate this relationship, we administered the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and measured asymmetries in finger tapping, Purdue Pegboard, and grip strength in 30 subjects who prefer their right hand and 30 subjects who prefer their left hand. Hand asymmetries in finger tapping, Purdue Pegboard, and grip strength each predicted hand preference scores. However, a multiple regression equation best predicted hand preference by using performance of each task. Hand asymmetries in finger tapping correlated strongly with asymmetries in Purdue Pegboard performance, but neither of these asymmetries correlated strongly with asymmetries in grip strength. These findings indicate that hand preference and asymmetries in motor proficiency are strongly related, but suggest that preference and proficiency for different aspects of motor performance may be independently lateralized.