© Oxford University Press 2014. All rights reserved. One of the aspects of behavioral neurology-neuropsychology that is most despised by many basic as well as clinical scientists is the case study and recently there has been a movement to severely limit these reports because many people do not consider them scientific. Several journals have also decided not to publish case studies. In this chapter, Heilman discusses the importance of case reports and case studies that inform clinicians about newly observed diseases, the mechanisms that may be inducing these diseases as well as possible treatments for these diseases.