© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The goal of this article is to review the brain mechanisms that mediate creativity, and how diseases of the brain influence creativity. Studying patients with brain lesions has been crucial for neurologists and neuropsychologists in understanding the modular organization of the brain, or the notion that there are specific areas of the brain that mediate specific functions. In the past 20. years, functional imaging has provided converging evidence for the concept of modularity or localization of function, but we believe that it is a mistake to think that technology such as functional imaging and electrophysiology will replace the insights gleaned from observations and studies of patients with neurological disorders. Additionally, studies of the behavioral changes associated with lesions of the brain have allowed scientists to fractionate many complex functions into their components parts.In this article, we will provide some examples on how neurological diseases might influence creativity and help delineate the brain mechanisms that may explain why some neurological diseases may affect creativity; however, before providing specific details of the relationships between neurological diseases and changes in creativity, we will first briefly review some experimental literature about creativity. This review will be followed by a discussion of case reports of artists with neurological diseases and how their disease influenced their creativity.