© 2019 American Society of Addiction Medicine. Objectives:Due to the elevated rates of cigarette use and marijuana use within the criminal justice system, it is critical to develop a stronger understanding of tobacco and marijuana co-use among this population to inform future interventions.Methods:This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data from a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial of adults (n=500) in a community correction program. Participants were classified as using cigarettes only or both cigarettes and marijuana through either self-report or positive urine drug screening. Demographics and measures regarding legal, drug use, smoking, mental health, and interpersonal histories were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with co-use.Results:Among adults who smoked cigarettes, 25% reported current marijuana use. Individuals who used both cigarettes and marijuana were more likely than those who only used cigarettes to be African American (80%), male (73.6%), and younger (M=32.4 [SD=11.0]). Increasing difficulties with last quit attempt was associated with a reduction in the likelihood of co-use (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.94, P<0.05), and benzodiazepine (OR 9.09, 95% CI 1.25-65.94, P<0.05) and opioid (OR 8.17, 95% CI 2.03-32.93, P<0.01) use was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of co-use.Conclusions:This study identified several factors that are associated with an increased risk of cigarette and marijuana co-use among a community correction population. These findings will be valuable for informing targeted prevention and treatment interventions.