© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. All rights reserved. The population of Puerto Rico is rapidly aging and in 2015 nearly 20% of the population was 65 years of age or older. Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States, and Puerto Ricans areU.S. citizens. But the unique social, cultural, economic, and political contexts mean that population aging in Puerto Rico is considerably different than the U.S. mainland. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of population aging and health in Puerto Rico. Emphasis is placed on the short- and long-term implications that recent economic and political events and natural disasters may have on older adults and population aging in Puerto Rico. We also present results from analyses of data from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions study that investigate the impact of interactions between depression and common chronic health conditions on the likelihood for disability in activities of daily living and mortality over a four-year period. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future areas of research that can help to address the substantial need for aging research in Puerto Rico.