There is scant literature describing the effect of glomerular disease on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The Cure Glomerulonephropathy study (CureGN) is an international longitudinal cohort study of children and adults with four primary glomerular diseases (minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and IgA nephropathy). HRQOL is systematically assessed using items from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Informative System (PROMIS). We assessed the relationship between HRQOL and demographic and clinical variables in 478 children and 1115 adults at the time of enrollment into CureGN. Domains measured by PROMIS items included global assessments of health, mobility, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep impairment, as well as a derived composite measure incorporating all measured domains. Multivariable models were created that explained 7 to 32% of variance in HRQOL. Patient-reported edema consistently had the strongest and most robust association with each measured domain of HRQOL in multivariable analysis (adjusted β [95% CI] for composite PROMIS score in children, -5.2 [-7.1 to -3.4]; for composite PROMIS score in adults, -6.1 [-7.4 to -4.9]). Female sex, weight (particularly obesity), and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also associated with some, but not all, domains of HRQOL. Primary diagnosis, disease duration, and exposure to immunosuppression were not associated with HRQOL after adjustment. Sensitivity analyses and interaction testing demonstrated no significant association between disease duration or immunosuppression and any measured domain of HRQOL. Thus, patient-reported edema has a consistent negative association with HRQOL in patients with primary glomerular diseases, with substantially greater impact than other demographic and clinical variables.