Copyright © 2019 by the American Thoracic Society. Rationale: The American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society defines a positive bronchodilator response (BDR) by a composite of BDR in either forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and/or forced vital capacity (FVC) greater than or equal to 12% and 200 ml (ATS-BDR). We hypothesized that ATSBDR components would be differentially associated with important chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. Objectives: To examine whether ATS-BDR components are differentially associated with clinical, functional, and radiographic features in COPD. Methods: We included subjects with COPD enrolled in the COPDGene study. In the main analysis, we excluded subjects with self-reported asthma. We categorized BDR into the following: 1) No-BDR, no BDR in either FEV1 or FVC; 2) FEV1-BDR, BDR in FEV1 but no BDR in FVC; 3) FVC-BDR, BDR in FVC but no BDR in FEV1; and 4) Combined-BDR, BDR in both FEV1 and FVC.We constructed multivariable logistic, linear, zero-inflated negative binomial, and Cox hazards models to examine the association of BDR categories with symptoms, computed tomography findings, change in FEV1 over time, respiratory exacerbations, and mortality.We also created models using the ATS BDR definition (ATS-BDR) as themain independent variable. Results: Of 3,340 COPD subjects included in the analysis, 1,083 (32.43%) had ATS-BDR, 182 (5.45%) had FEV1-BDR, 522 (15.63%) had FVC-BDR, and 379 (11.34%) had Combined-BDR. All BDR categories were associated with FEV1 decline compared with No-BDR. Compared with No-BDR, both ATS-BDR and Combined-BDR were associated with higher functional residual capacity %predicted, greater internal perimeter of 10 mm, and greater 6-minute-walk distance. In contrast to ATS-BDR, Combined-BDR was independently associated with less emphysema (adjusted beta regression coefficient, 21.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.68 to 20.65; P = 0.001), more frequent respiratory exacerbations (incidence rate ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.50; P = 0.02) and severe exacerbations (incidence rate ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.71; P = 0.02), and lower mortality (adjusted hazards ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99; P = 0.046). Sensitivity analysis that included subjects with self-reported history of asthma showed similar findings. Conclusions: BDR in both FEV1 and FVC indicates a COPD phenotype with asthma-like characteristics, and provides clinically more meaningful information than current definitions of BDR.