© 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS Introduction: Vitamin D plays an important role in the musculoskeletal system of the human body. Here, we review the most current literature on vitamin D as it relates to orthopaedic surgery and the musculoskeletal system, focusing largely on non-fracture applications. Materials and methods: A literature review was performed on the basic science of vitamin D metabolism, epidemiology of vitamin D levels, role of vitamin D within the musculoskeletal system, and the correlation of vitamin D with injuries and orthopaedic surgical outcomes. Results: The existing literature suggests vitamin D plays multiple roles in the musculoskeletal system. Recent research has shed light on the importance of vitamin D in the setting of soft tissue healing and recovery in addition to affecting postoperative outcomes after common orthopaedic procedures. Conclusions: Given the widespread prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the current evidence regarding clinical implications in patients with musculoskeletal complaints.