We are at a critical juncture in our knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). It is clear that PD is not a single entity simply resulting from a dopaminergic deficit; rather it is most likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although there is extensive new information on the etiology and pathogenesis of PD, which may advance its treatment, new syntheses of this information are needed. The second part of this two-part, state-of-the-art review by leaders in PD research critically examines the research field to identify areas for which new knowledge and ideas might be helpful for treatment purposes. Topics reviewed in Part II are genetics, animal models, and oxidative stress. © 2007 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.