The authors examined the relation of parental age at birth to the risk of prostate cancer among sons with the use of data from the Framingham Study. During 42 years of follow-up (1949-1993), 141 prostate cancer cases occurred in 2,164 men. All but six cases were confirmed by histologic report. The incidence rate of prostate cancer increased from 1.70 per 1,000 person-years among sons in the lowest quartile of paternal age (<27 years), to 2.00, 2.32, and 2.74 among those of each increased paternal age category (27-<32, 32-<38, and ≥38 years), respectively. After adjustment for age and other covariates, men in the second, third, and oldest quartiles of paternal age had 1.2, 1.3, and 1.7 times increased risk of prostate cancer compared with men in the youngest quartile (p for trend = 0.049). Further adjustment for maternal age did not change the relation materially. The association of older paternal age with risk of early-onset prostate cancer (<65 years) appeared stronger than that with late-onset disease (≥65 years). No increased risk of prostate cancer was observed among subjects in the older maternal age category. The effect of increased paternal age on prostate cancer risk may operate through increased germ cell mutation rate or by mechanisms not yet defined.