Triaryl-Like MONO-, BIS-, and TRISKITPHOS Phosphines: Synthesis, Solution NMR Studies, and a Comparison in Gold-Catalyzed Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Forming 5-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig Cyclizations

Academic Article

Abstract

  • © 2016 American Chemical Society. A homologous series of triaryl-like KITPHOS-type monophosphines containing one, two, or three bulky 12-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethenoanthracene (KITPHOS) units have been developed, and the influence of increasing steric bulk on their efficacy as ligands in gold(I)-catalyzed carbon-heteroatom bond-forming cyclizations has been investigated. Detailed solution NMR studies on Ph-TRISKITPHOS, its oxide, and the corresponding gold(I) chloride adduct identified a conformational exchange process involving a concerted librational motion of the individual anthracene-derived organic substituents about their P-C bonds. The cessation of this motion at reduced temperatures lowers the molecular symmetry such that the two C 6 H 4 rings in each of the KITPHOS units become inequivalent; a lower energy process involving restricted rotation of the biaryl-like phenyl ring has also been identified. Electrophilic gold(I) complexes of these triaryl-like KITPHOS monophosphines catalyze the 5-exo-dig cycloisomerization of propargyl amides to afford the corresponding methylene oxazolines, which were used in a subsequent tandem carbonyl-ene reaction to afford functionalized 2-substituted oxazolines. A comparative survey revealed that catalyst efficiency for cycloisomerization decreases in the order MONOKITPHOS = BISKITPHOS > PPh 3 > TRISKITPHOS. The optimum system also catalyzes the selective 6-endo-dig cyclization of 2-alkynylbenzyl alcohols, 2-alkynylbenzoic acid, and 2-phenylethynyl benzamides; gratifyingly, in several cases the yields obtained are markedly higher and/or reaction times significantly shorter than those previously reported for related gold catalysts. Moreover, these are the first examples of gold(I)-catalyzed 6-endo-dig cycloisomerizations involving 2-phenylethynyl benzamides and, reassuringly, the optimum gold(I)/MONOKITPHOS systems either rivaled or outperformed existing silver or palladium-based catalysts. The steric parameters of this homologous series of phosphines have been quantified and compared with selected triarylphosphines using a combination of Solid-G calculations, to determine the percentage of the metal coordination sphere shielded by the phosphine (the G parameter), and Salerno molecular buried volume calculations (SambVca) to determine the percent buried volume (%V bur ); the corresponding Tolman cone angles have also been determined from correlations.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Organometallics  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Doherty S; Knight JG; Perry DO; Ward NAB; Bittner DM; McFarlane W; Wills C; Probert MR
  • Start Page

  • 1265
  • End Page

  • 1278
  • Volume

  • 35
  • Issue

  • 9