In vivo protein-DNA interactions connect each transcription factor with its direct targets to form a gene network scaffold. To map these protein-DNA interactions comprehensively across entire mammalian genomes, we developed a large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChlPSeq) based on direct ultrahigh-throughput DNA sequencing. This sequence census method was then used to map in vivo binding of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF; also known as REST, for repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor) to 1946 locations in the human genome. The data display sharp resolution of binding position [±S0 base pairs (bp)], which facilitated our finding motifs and allowed us to identify noncanonical NRSF-binding motifs. These ChlPSeq data also have high sensitivity and specificity [ROC (receiver operator characteristic) area > 0.96] and statistical confidence (P < 10 -4 ), properties that were important for inferring new candidate interactions. These include key transcription factors in the gene network that regulates pancreatic islet cell development.