Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), enzootic among monkeys of the genus Macaca, causes minimal morbidity in its natural host. In contrast, human B-virus infection presents as rapidly ascending encephalomyelitis with a fatality rate of A70%. This infection remains an uncommon result of macaque-related injuries, although the increase in the use of macaques for research on simian retrovirus infection and hepatitis has expanded the number of opportunities for human exposure. In response to this situation, Emory University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention jointly sponsored a B Virus Working Group to formulate a rational approach to the detection and management of human B-virus infection. The resulting guidelines are presented herein and are based upon information from published cases, unpublished cases managed by working-group members, knowledge of the behavior of herpes simplex virus, and in the absence of hard datathe collective judgment of the group. Although consensus among the coauthors existed on the major points covered by these guidelines, opinions varied widely regarding specific recommendations. © 1995 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.