Affinity changes and avidity modulation both contribute to activation of β2-integrin-mediated adhesion, an essential, early step in inflammation. Avidity modulation, defined as an increase in adhesiveness independent of integrin conformational changes, might be due to integrin clustering, motion, or both. Increased integrin diffusion upon leukocyte activation has been demonstrated, but whether it is proadhesive in itself, or just constitutes a mechanism for integrin clustering, remains unclear. To understand the proadhesive effects of integrin affinity changes, clustering, and motion, an experimental system was devised to separate them. Clustering and integrin motion together were induced by cytochalasin D (CD) without inducing high-affinity; integrin motion could then be frozen by fixation; and high affinity was induced independently by Mn2+. Adhesion was equivalent for fixed and unfixed cells except following pretreatment with CD or Mn 2+, which increased adhesion for both. However, fixed cells were less adhesive than unfixed cells after CD, even though integrin clustering was similar. A simple explanation is that CD induces both clustering and integrin motion, fixation then stops motion on fixed cells, but integrins continue to diffuse on unfixed cells, increasing the kinetics of integrin/ICAM-1 interactions to enhance adhesion. Affinity changes are then independent of, and additive to, avidity effects.