© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Precision medicine is an emerging treatment paradigm that aims to find the right therapy at the right time based on an individual's unique genetic background, environment, and lifestyle. One area of precision medicine that has had success is targeting DNA repair in cancer. DNA is exposed to constant stress and there are repair mechanisms in place to maintain genetic integrity. These repair mechanisms can be targeted as a treatment strategy. In this chapter, we will focus on current efforts to target DNA repair pathways as part of precision oncology-based treatments.