Effectiveness of healthcare educational and behavioral interventions to improve gout outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Academic Article


  • © The Author(s), 2018. Background: We aimed to systematically review the effectiveness of healthcare behavioral and education interventions for gout patients on clinical outcomes. Methods: We searched multiple databases to identify trials or observational studies of educational or behavioral interventions in gout. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool for randomized control trials (RCTs) and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for categorical and standardized mean difference (SMD) for continuous measures using a random-effects model. Results: Overall, eight (five RCTs and three observational) studies met the inclusion criteria and examined pharmacist-led interventions (n = 3), nurse-led interventions (n = 3) and primary care provider interventions (n = 2). Compared with the control intervention (usual care in most cases), a higher proportion of those in the educational/behavioral intervention arm achieved serum urate (SU) levels <6 mg/dl, 47.2% versus 23.8%, the OR was 4.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48, 15.97; 4 RCTs] with moderate quality evidence. Compared with the control intervention, a higher proportion of those in the educational/behavioral intervention arm were adherent to allopurinol, achieved at least a 2 mg/dl decrease in SU, achieved an SU < 5 mg/dl, had a reduction in the presence of tophi at 2 years, had improved quality of life as assessed with SF-36 physical component scores, had a higher knowledge about gout and higher patient satisfaction (moderate-low quality evidence). Conclusion: Educational and behavioral interventions can improve gout outcomes in the short-intermediate term. Randomized trials are needed to assess its impact on long-term gout outcomes.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ramsubeik K; Ramrattan LA; Kaeley GS; Singh JA
  • Start Page

  • 235
  • End Page

  • 252
  • Volume

  • 10
  • Issue

  • 12