© 2018 Md Mizanur Rahman et al. Despite increasing evidence suggesting a role for NADPH oxidases (Nox) in bone pathophysiology, whether Nox enzymes contribute to obesity-mediated bone remodeling remains to be clearly elucidated. Nox2 is one of the predominant Nox enzymes expressed in the bone marrow microenvironment and is a major source of ROS generation during inflammatory processes. It is also well recognized that a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, which negatively impacts bone remodeling. In this work, we investigated the effect of Nox2 loss of function on obesity-mediated alteration of bone remodeling using wild-type (WT) and Nox2-knockout (KO) mice fed with a standard lab chow diet (SD) as a control or a HFD as an obesity model. Bone mineral density (BMD) of mice was assessed at the beginning and after 3 months of feeding with SD or HFD. Our results show that HFD increased bone mineral density to a greater extent in KO mice than in WT mice without affecting the total body weight and fat mass. HFD also significantly increased the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow microenvironment of WT mice as compared to KO mice. The bone levels of proinflammatory cytokines and proosteoclastogenic factors were also significantly elevated in WT-HFD mice as compared to KO-HFD mice. Furthermore, the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells into osteoclasts was significantly increased when using bone marrow cells from WT-HFD mice as compared to KO-HFD mice. Our data collectively suggest that Nox2 is implicated in HFD-induced deleterious bone remodeling by enhancing bone marrow adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis.