There is a paucity of studies addressing the accuracy of 24-hour urine collection for assessing stone risk parameters. Collection accuracy is thought to be essential for assigning optimal therapy for stone prevention. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with accurate and inaccurate collections. During a 2-year period (2015-2016), 241 stone formers completed 24-hour urine collections. They were divided into accurate collectors (AC), defined as at least one accurate urine collection, and inaccurate collectors (IC). Accuracy was assessed by 24-hour urine creatinine (Cr) excretion indexed to body weight (normal: males, 20-25 mg Cr/kg; females, 15-20 mg Cr/kg). Demographic data analyzed included age, gender, race, insurance status, partner status, income, and education. Statistical analysis methods included the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the two-group t-test. Average age was 50.7 years at the time of collection; 50.2% were men, 86% were white, and 14% were black. Overall, 51.0% of collections were inaccurate. There was no statistical significance between AC and IC for gender (P = 0.85), race (P = 0.90), insurance status (P = 0.85), recurrence (P = 0.87), stone type (P = 0.57), education (P = 0.35), income (P 5 0.42), or poverty (P = 0.35). Older age (P = 0.017) and having a partner (P = 0.022) were significantly associated with AC. The high rate of inaccurate 24-hour urine collections is a concern. The only factors we identified as influencing collection accuracy were age and partner status. These results underscore the importance of developing methods to improve the accuracy of collecting 24-hour urine samples.