© 2017 American Psychological Association. Research on religious coping has proliferated in recent years, but many key questions remain, including the independent effects of positive and negative religious coping styles on well-being over time. Further, little research on religious coping styles has been conducted with African Americans in spite of their documented importance in this population. The present study examined the independent prospective effects on well-being of positive and negative religious coping styles over the subsequent 2.5 years in a national sample of African American community-dwelling adults. Well-being indicators included depressive symptoms and positive and negative affect as well as self-esteem and meaning in life. Results indicated that when considering positive and negative religious coping styles together, baseline positive religious coping consistently and positively predicted the well-being indicators 2.5 years later, while negative religious coping consistently and negatively predicted the well-being indicators 2.5 years later. These effects remained when examining change in well-being levels over time, although they attenuated in magnitude. Finally, negative religious coping more strongly predicted the negative aspects of well-being (e.g., depressive symptoms, negative affect) 2.5 years later than did positive religious coping, an effect that also remained but was attenuated when controlling for baseline levels of well-being. These results highlight the nuanced relationships between both positive and negative religious coping styles and positive and negative aspects of well-being over time among African Americans. Future research might usefully examine how to minimize negative effects and capitalize on the salutary effects of positive religious coping.