Association of low income with pulmonary disease progression in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Academic Article


  • Low socioeconomic status has been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but little is known about its impact on disease progression. We assessed the association of income to symptoms, pulmonary disease severity and progression in smokers with and without COPD. The COPDGene cohort of 4826 smokers who reported annual income in phase 2 was analysed. Those who reported annual income
  • Published In

  • ERJ Open Research  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lowe KE; Make BJ; Crapo JD; Kinney GL; Hokanson JE; Kim V; Iyer AS; Bhatt SP; Hoth KF; Holm KE
  • Volume

  • 4
  • Issue

  • 4