Patients with persistent/chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) have low platelet counts, increased risk of bleeding and bruising, and often suffer from reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). cITP treatments may either improve HRQoL by increasing platelet counts or decrease it because of side effects. The open-label EXTEND study (June 2006 to July 2015) evaluated long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of eltrombopag (an oral thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist) in adults with cITP who completed a previous eltrombopag ITP trial. The final results of EXTEND were published and used to assess changes in patient-reported HRQoL over time and association between HRQoL and platelet response. Four validated HRQoL instruments were administered: SF-36v2 including physical component summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary; Motivation and Energy Inventory Short Form (MEI-SF); Fatigue Subscale of FACIT (FACIT-Fatigue); and FACT-Thrombocytopenia Subscale Six-Item Extract (FACT-Th6). For the 302 patients enrolled, median duration of eltrombopag treatment was 2.37 years. All 4 HRQoL instruments demonstrated positive mean changes from baseline over time adjusted for patient baseline characteristics and rescue therapy use, and had positive association with platelet response (platelet count ≥30 × 109/L; ≥50 × 109/L; and ≥50 × 109/L and >2 times baseline). Improvements from baseline started within 3 months and persisted through 5 years of treatment for FACIT-Fatigue and FACT-Th6 (P <.05 for nearly all time points); through 2.5 years for SF-36v2 PCS and less consistently for the MEI-SF. In conclusion, in addition to eltrombopag increasing platelet counts and reducing bleeding/bruising, it also alleviated fatigue, concerns about bleeding and bruising, and improved physical function in many patients, especially responders.