This study compares the phylogenetic lineages of invasive serotype III group B streptococci (GBS) to those of colonizing strains in order to determine lineages associated with invasive disease. Isolates from 29 infants with early-onset disease (EOD) and from 196 colonized infants, collected in a prospective, multicenter study, were assigned a sequence type (ST) by multilocus sequence typing. Overall, 54.5% of the isolates were in the ST-19 complex, and 40.4% were in the ST-17 complex. Invasive strains were more likely to be in the ST-17 complex than were colonizing strains (59% versus 38%, P = 0.03). After we adjusted for potential confounders, the ST-17 complex was more likely to be associated with EOD than were other lineages (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 6.20). These data support the hypothesis that ST-17 complex GBS are more virulent than other serotype III GBS.