Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were analyzed for 119 invasive and 227 colonizing strains of group B streptococci isolated from neonates at 6 US academic centers. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime. The rate of resistance to erythromycin was 20.2% and to clindamycin was 6.9%. Resistance to erythromycin increased in 1997. Type V strains were more resistant to erythromycin than were type Ia (P = .003) and type Ib (P = .004) strains and were more resistant to clindamycin than were type Ia (P < .001), type Ib (P = .01), and type III (P = .001) strains. Resistance rates varied with geographic region: in California, there were high rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (32% and 12%, respectively), and low rates in Florida (8.5% and 2.1%, respectively). Penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for treatment of group B streptococcus infection. For women who are penicillin intolerant, however, the selection of an alternative antibiotic should be guided by contemporary resistance patterns observed in that region.