In this study, exosomes used to encapsulate curcumin (Exo-cur) or a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibitor, i.e., JSI124 (Exo-JSI124) were delivered noninvasively to microglia cells via an intranasal route. The results generated from three inflammation-mediated disease models, i.e., a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis and a GL26 brain tumor model, showed that mice treated intranasally with Exo-cur or Exo-JSI124 are protected from LPS-induced brain inflammation, the progression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and had significantly delayed brain tumor growth in the GL26 tumor model. Intranasal administration of Exo-cur or Exo-JSI124 led to rapid delivery of exosome encapsulated drug to the brain that was selectively taken up by microglial cells, and subsequently induced apoptosis of microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that this strategy may provide a noninvasive and novel therapeutic approach for treating brain inflammatory-related diseases. © 2011 The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.