© Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2018. The inconsistent findings from epidemiologic studies relating total sugars (TS) consumption to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may be partly due to measurement error in self-reported intake. Using regression calibration equations developed based on the predictive biomarker for TS and recovery biomarker for energy, we examined the association of TS with T2D and CVD risk, before and after dietary calibration, in 82,254 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. After up to 16 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 6,621 T2D and 5,802 CVD incident cases were identified. The hazard ratio for T2D per 20% increase in calibrated TS was 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.15) in multivariable energy substitution, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.18) in energy partition models. Multivariable hazard ratios for total CVD were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.09) from energy substitution, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.04) from energy partition models. Uncalibrated TS generated a statistically significant inverse association with T2D and total CVD risk in multivariable energy substitution and energy partition models. The lack of conclusive findings from our calibrated analyses may be due to the low explanatory power of the calibration equations for TS, which could have led to incomplete deattenuation of the risk estimates.