PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To advance a re-conceptualized prevention, treatment, and care continuum (PTCC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) in prisons, and to make recommendations for strengthening prison health systems and reducing HIV-associated TB morbidity and mortality throughout the cycle of pretrial detention, incarceration, and release. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite evidence of increased HIV-associated TB burden in prisons compared to the general population, prisoners face entrenched barriers to accessing anti-TB therapy, antiretroviral therapy, and evidence-based HIV and TB prevention. New approaches, suitable for the complexities of healthcare delivery in prisons, have emerged that may address these barriers, and include: novel TB diagnostics, universal test and treat for HIV, medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence, comprehensive transitional case management, and peer navigation, among others. SUMMARY: Realizing ambitious international HIV and TB targets in prisons will only be possible by first addressing the root causes of the TB/HIV syndemic, which are deeply intertwined with human rights violations and weaknesses in prison health systems, and, second, fundamentally re-organizing HIV and TB services around a coordinated PTCC. Taking these steps can help ensure universal access to comprehensive, good-quality, free and voluntary TB/HIV prevention, treatment, and care, and advance efforts to strengthen health resourcing, staffing, information management, and primary care access within prisons.