Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of N-carboxamidine-substituted analogues of 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine hydrochloride.

Academic Article


  • Ten, hitherto unreported, analogues of 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine hydrochloride (2a, ribamidine) and methyl carboximidate 5 have been synthesized. These include the N-cyano (2b), N-alkyl (2c-e), N-amino acid (2f-h), N,N'-disubstituted (6, 7a,b), and the N-methylated carboxamide (1f) analogues of ribavirin. In addition, a new facile synthesis of carboxamidine 2a was also developed. All compounds were evaluated for biological activity against the following RNA viruses: Punta Toro (PT) and sandfly fever (SF) viruses (bunyaviruses); Japanese encephalitis (JE), yellow fever (YF), and dengue-4 viruses (flaviviruses); parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and measles viruses (paramyxoviruses); influenza A and influenza B viruses (orthomyxoviruses); Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEE, alphavirus); human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1, lentivirus); the DNA-containing vaccinia (VV) virus (poxvirus); and adeno type 5 (Ad5) viruses. All of the compounds except for 2b and 7a,b exhibited activity against the bunyaviruses such as that observed with 2a; however, higher IC50 values were generally observed. Glycine analogue 2f showed activity in PT-virus-infected mice in terms of increased survivors and decreased markers of viral pathogenicity. Carboxamidine 2a, carboximidate 5, and dimethyl amidine 6 exhibited activity against dengue type-4 virus. Monomethyl amidine 2c demonstrated activity against RSV, PIV3, and, to a lesser extent, influenza A and B. Activity of 2c generally required higher IC50 values than unsubstituted 2a. The latter exhibited hitherto unreported activity against RSV; therapeutic indices for 2a against RSV and PIV3 were greater than 64 and greater than 21. No substantial in vitro activity was observed for any of the compounds tested against Ad5, measles, JE, YF, VEE, or HIV-1. In addition, evidence is presented which argues in favor of a distinct antiviral mechanism of action for carboxamidines, e.g. 6, in contrast to a role as a carboxamide precursor.
  • Published In


  • Animals, Antiviral Agents, Bunyaviridae Infections, HIV-1, Mice, Molecular Structure, RNA Viruses, Ribavirin, Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Author List

  • Gabrielsen B; Phelan MJ; Barthel-Rosa L; See C; Huggins JW; Kefauver DF; Monath TP; Ussery MA; Chmurny GN; Schubert EM
  • Start Page

  • 3231
  • End Page

  • 3238
  • Volume

  • 35
  • Issue

  • 17