PURPOSE: To assess agreement between structural and functional testing in classifying eyes as normal or abnormal and their repeatability on two consecutive visits by means of standard automated perimetry (SAP) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. DESIGN: Analysis of selected data obtained from a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study, the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one participants with a SAP and a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) test within a three-month window at two visits within 15 months were included. Eyes were classified by SAP and HRT at each visit. Agreement and repeatability were assessed by kappa statistics. RESULTS: At visit 1, 33 (22%) of 151 eyes had only SAP defects, 11 (7%) eyes had only HRT defects, and 35 (23%) eyes had both SAP and HRT defects. Seventy-two eyes (48%) were classified as normal by both tests. Similar results were obtained for visit 2. The agreement between SAP and HRT in classifying eyes was 70% (kappa = 0.393) at visit one and 68% (kappa = 0.363) at visit 2. Repeatability of classification by SAP alone, HRT alone, and both SAP and HRT between visits 1 and 2 was 84% (kappa = 0.693), 89% (kappa = 0.752), and 90% (kappa = 0.723), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between SAP and HRT was only fair at both visits. Repeatability across visits was substantial for SAP alone, HRT alone, and for the combination of SAP and HRT. These results suggest that detection of particular features of glaucomatous damage depends on the technique used. Structural and functional tests appear complementary, and both should be used for early detection of glaucoma.