Nutrition is an integral component of medical care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports integration of medical nutrition therapy into routine care for this population. Fewer PLWHA experience wasting and undernutrition, while the prevalence of obesity and other chronic diseases has increased significantly. Improved understanding of HIV infection's impact on metabolism and chronic inflammation has only increased the complexity of managing chronic HIV infection. Nutrition assessment should encompass food insecurity risk, changes in body composition, biochemical indices, and clinical indicators of comorbid disease. Side effects from current antiretroviral therapy regimens are less prevalent than with previous generations of therapy. However, micronutrient deficiencies and chronic anemia also remain significant nutritional risks for PLWHA, making vitamin and mineral supplementation necessary in cases of acute deficiency or food insecurity. Additional factors can impact HIV-related nutrition care among the pediatric population, older adults, minority groups, those co-infected with tuberculosis or hepatitis, and PLWHA in rural or underserved areas. Registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetic technicians, registered should participate in multidisciplinary care to incorporate nutrition into the medical management of PLWHA.