Brain expression of klotho was first described with the initial discovery of the klotho gene. The prominent age-regulating effects of klotho are attributed to regulation of ion homeostasis through klotho function in the kidney. However, recent advances identified brain functions and cell populations, including adult hippocampal neural progenitors, which require klotho. As well, both human correlational studies and mouse models of disease show that klotho is protective against multiple neurological and psychological disorders. This review focuses on current knowledge as to how the klotho protein effects the brain.