Microspectrophotometric investigations of visual pigments in the teleost family Cichlidae determined that morphological "twin cones" need not be "pigment twins" as well. In each species there were two pigments that could be found in these cells; a "longwave" and a "shortwave" type whose precise spectral location varies for each species, making the terms red and green inadequate to describe them. Studies of the receptor mosaic with the nitro-blue tetrazolium chloride reduction technique permitted the sampling of larger receptor populations and confirmed that twin cones in several cichlid species could be either longwave-longwave, longwave-shortwave, or shortwave-shortwave pairs, and that the relative proportions of these twin cone types vary in different parts of the retinas. Nonuniform distribution of pigment types was also evident in the eyes of several other species from a variety of piscine taxa. Copyright © 1979 AAAS.