We retrospectively studied the effect of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy on academic achievement of children with epilepsy from child neurology clinics at two medical centers. Fifty-four school-age children in regular classroom placements who had been on treatment for at least 6 months and had California Achievement Test (CAT) scores available on and off or before and after therapy were studied. Neither AED therapy in general nor barbiturate use in particular had a significant effect on CAT performance after up to 6 years of treatment. The average total percentile score for the cohort was at the national mean (51.8). Children who are in a regular classroom placement, have well controlled seizures, and are free from overt medication toxicity can be expected to have normal academic achievement, as measured by the CAT, which should not decline during AED treatment.