Human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II participates in a variety of important biological processes, and it has long been known that genetic mutations of HCA II are closely correlated to human disease. In this research, we investigated the effects of a genetic single point mutation P237, which is located on the surface of the molecule and does not participate in the HCA II catalysis, on HCA II activity, stability and folding. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the mutation caused more buried Trp residues to become accessible by solvent and caused the NMR signals to become less dispersed, but did not affect the secondary structure or the hydrophobic exposure of the protein. The mutant was less stable than the wild type enzyme against heat- and GdnHCl-induced inactivation, but its pH adaptation was similar to the wild type. The mutation slightly decreased the stability of the molten globular intermediate, but gradually affected the stability of the native state by a 10-fold reduction of the Gibbs free energy for the transition from the native state to the intermediate. This might have led to an accumulation of the aggregation-prone molten globular intermediate, which further trapped the proteins into the off-pathway aggregates during refolding and reduced the levels of active enzyme in vivo. The results herein suggested that the correct positioning of the long loop around P237 might be crucial to the folding of HCA II, particularly the formation of the active site.